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All the SAT Idioms You Need: Complete List

Posted by Justin Berkman | Jun 14, 2015 2:00:00 PM

SAT Writing

 

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Idiom questions on the SAT are different than most of the other grammar questions. Why? Idiom questions can't be figured out by applying a specific rule. You have to rely on your general knowledge of English and your familiarity with certain phrases. Because you’re likely to encounter a couple of idiom questions on the SAT Writing and Language subsection, I’ll provide you with some information about idioms that should help you raise your SAT score.


In this post, I’ll do the following:

  • Explain the concept of an idiom.
  • Detail the most common type of idiom questions on the SAT Writing and Language subsection.
  • Offer strategies to help you identify and correctly answer idiom questions.
  • Give a thorough SAT idiom list to help guide your studying.
  • Provide you with practice questions to test you on what you’ve learned.

 

What Is an Idiom?

Idioms are phrases or expressions that do not conform to simple rules. Each idiom, by definition, is unique. Most people think of idioms as expressions that often have figurative meanings different from their literal meanings. Examples of this type of idiom include "at the drop of the hat," "beat around the bush," and "in over (one's) head." However, the SAT does not test you on these colloquial expressions. SAT Writing and Language idiom questions will test you on different types of idioms.

 

How Are Idioms Tested in SAT Writing and Language?

While the SAT does not test you on the figurative expressions I referenced above, the SAT may test you on two types of idioms: prepositional idioms and idioms with gerunds/infinitives.

 

Prepositional Idioms

For prepositional idioms, you must know which prepositions to use with a given word based on the context of the sentence. For example, you should say that you're "interested in" something, not "interested at" something. You "focus on" something, not "focus at" something. There is no rule to determine the correct preposition to use. You must be familiar with the phrase or rely on what you think "sounds right." Here's an example sentence with a prepositional idiom:

Because he laughed when his friend fell down, Justin was accused of being devoid at sympathy.

 

You may encounter a sentence like this on your SAT. In the sentence, there is no violation of a specific grammar rule. However, "devoid at" is an idiom error. Why? Well, the correct phrase is "devoid of." The corrected version of the sentence looks like this:

Because he laughed when his friend fell down, Justin was accused of being devoid of sympathy.

 

The expression "devoid of" means without. Familiarity with the given expression greatly helps to identify an idiom error.

There is another type of idiom that may be tested on the SAT.

 

Idioms with Gerunds or Infinitives

Gerunds are verbs that are used as nouns and end in "ing." Examples of gerunds include running, jumping, and thinking. Infinitives are verbs used as nouns and are constructed by using the word "to" plus a verb. Examples of infinitives include to run, to jump, and to think.

What are some examples of idioms with gerunds or infinitives? The correct phrase is "capable of being," not "capable as being." The proper idiomatic expression is "mind being," not "mind to be." For these types of idioms, you need to know which preposition to use and whether to use a gerund or an infinitive.

With some idioms, depending on the context, it is acceptable to use an infinitive or a gerund.

Here's an example:

I struggle to do geometry.

 

Or, you can also write:

I struggle doing geometry.

 

Both sentences are correct. Here is a sentence with an idiom error:

Bob insists at being annoying.

 

Do you recognize the idiom error? Do you know the right idiom? This is the corrected version of the sentence:

Bob insists on being annoying.

 

Again, there is no rule to learn that lets you know that the phrase should be "insists on being" instead of "insists at being." This is another example of an idiom error:

Julie tends being worrisome.

 

Check out the sentence after the idiom error is corrected:

Julie tends to be worrisome.

 

The infinitive form should be used with the word "tends" instead of the gerund form. Now let's look at idiom questions from the SAT.

 

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Real Examples

Here are a couple of idiom questions from the College Board's practice tests.

 

 

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Explanation: The infinitive "to be" is incorrectly used with the verb "serves." In this sentence, the proper idiomatic expression is "serves as." The correct answer is B.

 

See if you can figure out this idiom question:

 

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Explanation: The correct idiomatic expression is "as a means of." The answer is B.

 

 

Why Are Idiom Questions Difficult/Easy?

 

Why They're Difficult

Idiom questions can be challenging because other grammar questions follow specific rules or patterns that can be applied to all sentences. Idiom questions test your knowledge of specific idiomatic expressions. Literally, there are thousands of idioms. It's not practical to try to remember each one. 

Furthermore, ESL students are less likely to be able to identify idiom errors. Those who have recently learned English have had less exposure to idiomatic expressions and can't learn all of the correct expressions by memorizing a rule.

 

Why They're Easy

Idiom questions are one of the few types of grammar questions where solely relying on what "sounds right" is likely to give you the right answer. These questions don't require you to understand and apply a rule. If you're familiar with the specific idioms that appear on your SAT, you can easily spot any idiom errors. 

 

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SAT Tips for Idiom Questions

 

#1: If a preposition, gerund, or infinitive is underlined, check for idiom errors.

 

#2: The question may be testing idioms if the answer choices are all prepositions.

 

#3: Keep a list of idioms that appear on practice tests.

 

#4: Review and familiarize yourself with the list of idioms below.

 
 

 

Complete List of SAT Writing Idioms

While there are thousands of idioms in the English language, SAT idiom questions will most likely involve prepositional idioms or idioms with gerunds/infinitives. I've listed some of the more common prepositional idioms and idioms with gerunds/infinitives to help guide your studying. Idioms that have appeared on questions in the College Board’s practice tests are listed first.

It's not practical for you to memorize every single idiom on this list. There will probably only be a couple of idiom questions on your SAT Writing and Language subsection. Spending numerous hours learning hundreds of idioms wouldn't be the best use of your study time. 

However, I do recommend that you review this list periodically to become more familiar with these phrases. Thinking about proper idiom construction should benefit you when you encounter idiom questions on the SAT. You'll improve your intuitive grasp of idioms and be able to better recognize idiom errors.

Here's my thorough list of idioms:

 

IDIOMS FROM SAT PRACTICE TESTS

as a means of 

serve as

wait for

in order to be

 

 

PREPOSITIONAL IDIOMS

 

About

anxious about

ask about

bring about

curious about

hear about

think about

talk about

worry about

 

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Against

advise against

argue against

count against

decide against

defend against

go against

rebel against

 

As

celebrate as

regard as

see as

view as

 

At

aim at

arrive at

laugh at

look at

succeed at

 

By

accompanied by

amazed by

confused by

followed by

go by

impressed by

organized by

struck by

 

For

advocate for

ask for

blame for

famous for

known for

last for

meant for

named for

necessary for

pay for

ready for

responsible for

tolerance for

strive for

wait for

watch for 

 

From

abstain from

different from

excuse from

far from

obvious from

protect from

 

Into

enter into

look into

inquire into

read into

 

In

engage in

fall in love

in A as in B

interested in

succeed in 

take in

 

On 

base on

draw on

focus on

impose on

insist on

move on

prey on

rely on

 

Over

argue over

rule over

talk over

think over

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Of

approve of

capable of

certain of

characteristic of

combination of A and B

cure of

deprive of

die of 

a fan of

in danger of

in the hope of

in recognition of

made up of

a model of

an offer of

on the border of

remind of

a selection of

a source of

suspicious of

take advantage of

an understanding of

a wealth of

 

To

able to

accustomed to

adapt to

adhere to

admit to

adjacent to

agree to

as opposed to

belong to

central to

come to

contribute to

devoted to

in addition to

in contrast to

listen to

object to

prefer A to B

partial to

reluctant to

reply to

see to

similar to

a threat to

try to (NOT try and)

unique to

 

With 

agree with

bargain with

correlate with

familiar with

identify with

in keeping with

interfere with

sympathize with

trust with

 

GERUNDS VS. INFINITIVES

 

Verbs Followed by a Gerund

accuse of

admire for

allow

appreciate

capable of

complete

concentrate on

confess to

consider

delay

describe

discourage from

discuss

dislike

effective at

enjoy

escape

finish

forbid

imagine

insist on

permit

plan on

postpone

refrain from

report

resent

resume

stop

tolerate 

 

Prepositions Followed by a Gerund

before

after

without

 

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Verbs Followed by an Infinitive

agree

attempt

choose

condescend

dare

decide

deserve

encourage

expect

fail

intend

love

mean

neglect

offer

plan

prepare

promise

refuse

scramble

seem

strive

swear

tend

threaten

want

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Additional Practice

Congratulations on successfully making it to this point in the article! I know that was a long list. By now, you should understand the concept of idioms and how idioms are tested on the SAT. I've created some realistic SAT questions on idioms for you. Consider the proper construction of idiomatic expressions and try to answer these questions without referring to the list above.

 

1. Diligent research performed by education scholars indicates that more time spent studying correlates from better educational outcomes. 

A. NO CHANGE

B. of

C. with

D. Delete the underlined portion

 

2.  Because she is extremely protective, Renee hopes to prevent her younger sister for making irresponsible decisions at parties. 

A. NO CHANGE

B. to

C. from

D. at

 

3. After being interrogated by the police for five hours, Ken admitted to being guilty of racketeering and money laundering. 

A. NO CHANGE

B. to be

C. to having

D. is

 

4. Even though she was expected doing all of the domestic labor, Natasha was unwilling to conform to traditional gender roles. 

A. NO CHANGE

B. to do

C. at 

D. having done

 

Answers: 1. C, 2. C, 3. A, 4. B

 

What's Next?

Now that the maximum score for the SAT is a 1600, find out what's a good score on the new SAT. Find out how to find your target score.

Finally, learn whether you should take the SAT or the ACT.

 

 

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Justin Berkman
About the Author

Justin has extensive experience teaching SAT prep and guiding high school students through the college admissions and selection process. He is firmly committed to improving equity in education and helping students to reach their educational goals. Justin received an athletic scholarship for gymnastics at Stanford University and graduated with a BA in American Studies.



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