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Expert Guide to the AP Language and Composition Exam

Posted by Ellen McCammon | Jul 19, 2020 9:42:00 AM

Advanced Placement (AP)

 

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With the 2021 AP English Language and Composition exam happening on Wednesday, May 12, it's time to make sure that you're familiar with all aspects of the exam. In this article, I'll give a brief overview of the test, do a deeper dive on each of the sections, discuss how the exam is scored, offer some strategies for studying, and finally wrap up with some essential exam day tips.

 

Exam Overview

The AP Language and Composition exam tests your rhetorical and composition skills. Essentially, how do authors construct effective arguments in their writing? What tools do they use? How can you use those tools to craft effective writing yourself? That is the essence of rhetorical analysis.

The exam has two parts: the first section is an hour-long, 45 question multiple-choice section. It includes five sets of questions, each based on a passage or passages. In this section, there will be 23-25 rhetorical analysis questions which test your rhetorical skills. There will also be 20-22 composition questions which require you to consider revisions to the texts you're shown.

The second section is free response. It starts with a 15-minute reading period, and then you'll have 120 minutes to write three analytical essays:

  • One essay where you synthesize several provided texts to create an argument
  • One essay where you analyze a nonfiction passage for its rhetorical construction
  • One essay where you create an original argument in response to a prompt.

You will have about 40 minutes to write each essay, but no one will prompt you to move from essay to essay—you can structure the 120 minutes as you wish.

In the next sections I'll go over each section of the exam more closely—first multiple choice, and then free response.

 

The AP English Language and Composition Multiple-Choice

The multiple-choice section tests you on two main areas. The first is how well you can read and understand nonfiction passages for their use of rhetorical devices and tools. The second is how well you can "think like a writer" and make revisions to texts in composition questions.

You will be presented with five passages, about which you will receive a small amount of orienting information, e.g. "This passage is excerpted from a collection of essays on boating" or "This passage is excerpted from an essay written in 19th-century Haiti." Each passage will be followed by a set of questions.

There are, in general, eight question types you can expect to encounter on the multiple-choice section of the exam. I've taken my examples from the sample questions in the "Course and Exam Description."

 

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Magic eight-ball says there are eight types of multiple-choice questions!

 

Type 1: Reading Comprehension

These questions are focused on verifying that you understood what a certain part of the passage was saying on a concrete, literal level. You can identify these questions from phrases like "according to" "refers," etc. The best way to succeed on these questions is to go back and re-read the part of the passage referred to very carefully.

Example:

Comprehension.png

 

Type 2: Implication

These questions take reading comprehension one step further—they are primarily focused on what the author is implying without directly coming out and saying it. These questions will have a correct answer, though, based on evidence from the passage. Which interpretation offered in the answers does the passage most support? You can identify questions like these from words like "best supported," ‘"implies," "suggests," "inferred," and so on.

Example:

implies.png

 

Type 3: Overall Passage and Author Questions

These questions ask about overall elements of the passage or the author, such as the author's attitude on the issue discussed, the purpose of the passage, the passage's overarching style, the audience for the passage, and so on.

You can identify these questions because they won't refer back to a specific moment in the text. For these questions, you'll need to think of the passage from a "bird's-eye view" and consider what all of the small details together are combining to say.

Example:

3overall_passage.png

 

Type 4: Relationships Between Parts of the Text

Some questions will ask you to describe the relationship between two parts of the text, whether they are paragraphs or specific lines. You can identify these because they will usually explicitly ask about the relationship between two identified parts of the text, although sometimes they will instead ask about a relationship implicitly, by saying something like "compared to the rest of the passage."

Example:

4relationship.png

 

Type 5: Interpretation of Imagery/Figurative Language

These questions will ask you about the deeper meaning or implication of figurative language or imagery that is used in the text. Essentially, why did the author choose to use this simile or this metaphor? What is s/he trying to accomplish?

You can generally identify questions like this because the question will specifically reference a moment of figurative language in the text. However, it might not be immediately apparent that the phrase being referenced is figurative, so you may need to go back and look at it in the passage to be sure of what kind of question you are facing.

Example:

5imagery.png

 

Type 6: Purpose of Part of the Text

Still other questions will ask you to identify what purpose a particular part of the text serves in the author's larger argument. What is the author trying to accomplish with the particular moment in the text identified in the question?

You can identify these questions because they will generally explicitly ask what purpose a certain part of the text serves. You may also see words or phrases like "serves to" or "function."

Example:

6purpose_of_part.png

 

Type 7: Rhetorical Strategy

These questions will ask you to identify a rhetorical strategy used by the author. They will often specifically use the phrase "rhetorical strategy," although sometimes you will be able to identify them instead through the answer choices, which offer different rhetorical strategies as possibilities.

Example:

7rhetorical_strategy.png

 

Type 8: Composition

This is the newest question type, first seen in the 2019/2020 school year. For these questions, the student will need to act as though they are the writer and think through different choices writers need to make when writing or revising text.

These questions can involve changing the order of sentences or paragraphs, adding or omitting information to strengthen an argument or improve clarity, making changes to draw reader attention, and other composition-based choices.

Example:

body_composition

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Some very important stylish effects going on here.

 

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The AP English Language and Composition Free Response

The free response section has a 15-minute reading period. After that time, you will have 120 minutes to write three essays that address three distinct tasks.

Because the first essay involves reading sources, it is suggested that you use the entire 15-minute reading period to read the sources and plan the first essay. However, you may want to glance at the other questions during the reading period so that ideas can percolate in the back of your mind as you work on the first essay.


Essay One: Synthesis

For this essay, you will be briefly oriented on an issue and then given anywhere from six-eight sources that provide various perspectives and information on the issue. You will then need to write an argumentative essay with support from the documents.

If this sounds a lot like a DBQ, as on the history AP exams, that's because it is! However, this essay is much more argumentative in nature—your goal is to persuade, not merely interpret the documents.

Example (documents not included, see 2015 free response questions):

1question_1.png

 

Essay Two: Rhetorical Analysis

In the second essay, you'll be presented with an excerpt from a nonfiction piece that advances an argument and asked to write an essay analyzing the rhetorical strategies used to construct the passage's argument. You will also be given some orienting information—where the passage was excerpted from, who wrote it, its approximate date, where it was published (if at all), and to whom it was directed.

Example (excerpt not included, see 2015 free response questions):

2question_2.png

 

Essay Three: Argument

In the third essay, you will be presented with an issue and asked to write a persuasive essay taking a position on the issue. You will need to support your position with evidence from your "reading, experience, and observations."

Example (from 2015 free response questions):3question_3.png

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This doesn't look like a very well-constructed argument.

 

How The AP Language and Composition Exam Is Scored

The multiple-choice section of the exam is worth 45% of your score, and the free-response section is worth the other 55%. So each of the three free-response essays is worth about 18% of your score.

As on other APs, your raw score will be converted to a scaled score of 1-5. This exam has a relatively low 5 rate. Only 9.9% of test takers received a 5 last year, although 54% of students received a score of 3 or higher.

In terms of how the raw score is obtained, the multiple-choice section is similar to other AP multiple-choice sections: you receive a point for every question you answer correctly, and there is no penalty for guessing.

The grading rubrics for the free-response questions were revamped in 2019. They are scored using analytic rubrics instead of holistic rubrics. For each free-response question, you will be given a score from 0-6. The rubrics assess three major areas:

#1: Thesis (0 to 1 points): Is there a thesis, and does it properly respond to the prompt?

#2: Evidence and Commentary (0 to 4 points): Does the essay include supporting evidence and analysis that is relevant, specific, well organized, and supports the thesis?

#3: Sophistication (0 to 1 points): Is the essay well-crafted and show a sufficiently nuanced understanding of the prompt?

Each scoring rubric broadly assesses these three factors. However, each task is also different in nature, so the rubrics do have some differences. I'll go over each rubric—and what it really means—for you here.

 

Synthesis Essay Rubrics

THESIS

Score Scoring Criteria Essays With This Score:
0 For any of the following:
• There is no defensible thesis.
• The intended thesis only restates the prompt.
• The intended thesis provides a summary of the issue with no apparent or coherent claim.
• There is a thesis, but it does not respond to the prompt.
• Only restate the prompt.
• Do not take a position, or the position is vague or must
be inferred.
• Equivocate or summarize other's arguments but not the student's (e.g., some people say it's good, some people say it's bad).
• State an obvious fact rather than making a claim that requires a defense.
1 Responds to the prompt with a thesis that presents a defensible position. Respond to the prompt rather than restate or rephrase the prompt, and
the thesis clearly takes a position rather than just stating that there are
pros/cons.

 

EVIDENCE AND COMMENTARY

Score Scoring Criteria Essays With This Score:
0 Simply restates thesis
(if present), repeats
provided information, or
references fewer than two
of the provided sources.
  • Are incoherent or do not address the prompt.
  • May be just opinion with
    no textual references
    or references that are
    irrelevant.
1 EVIDENCE:
Provides evidence from or
references at least two of the
provided sources.
AND
COMMENTARY:
Summarizes the evidence
but does not explain how
the evidence supports the
student's argument
Tend to focus on summary
or description of sources
rather than specific
details.
2 EVIDENCE:
Provides evidence from or
references at least three of
the provided sources.
AND
COMMENTARY:
Explains how some of the
evidence relates to the
student's argument, but
no line of reasoning is
established, or the line of
reasoning is faulty.
  • Consist of a mix of
    specific evidence and
    broad generalities.
  • May contain some
    simplistic, inaccurate, or
    repetitive explanations
    that don't strengthen the argument.
  • May make one point well, but either do not make multiple supporting claims or do not adequately support more than one claim.
  • Do not explain the
    connections or
    progression between the student's claims, so a line of reasoning is not clearly established.
3 EVIDENCE:
Provides specific evidence
from at least three of
the provided sources to
support all claims in a line of
reasoning.
AND
COMMENTARY:
Explains how some of the
evidence supports a line of
reasoning.
  • Uniformly offer evidence
    to support claims.
  • Focus on the importance of specific words and details from the sources to build an argument.
  • Organize an argument
    as a line of reasoning
    composed of multiple
    supporting claims.
  • Commentary may fail to
    integrate some evidence or fail to support a key claim.
4 EVIDENCE:
Provides specific
evidence from at least
three of the provided
sources to support
all claims in a line of
reasoning.
AND
COMMENTARY:
Consistently explains how
the evidence supports a
line of reasoning.
  • Uniformly offer
    evidence to support
    claims.
  • Focus on the
    importance of specific
    words and details from
    the sources to build an
    argument.
  • Organize and support
    an argument as a line of
    reasoning composed
    of multiple supporting
    claims, each with
    adequate evidence that
    is clearly explained.

 

SOPHISTICATION

Score Scoring Criteria Essays With This Score:
0 Does not meet the criteria for one point • Attempt to contextualize their argument, but such attempts consist predominantly of sweeping generalizations.
• Only hint at or suggest other arguments.
• Use complicated or complex sentences or language that are ineffective because they do not enhance the argument.
1 Demonstrates sophistication of thought and/or a complex understanding of the
rhetorical situation.
Responses that earn this point may demonstrate sophistication of thought
and/or a complex understanding of the rhetorical situation by doing any of the
following:
1. Crafting a nuanced argument by consistently identifying and exploring
complexities or tensions across the sources.
2. Articulating the implications or limitations of an argument (either the student's
argument or arguments conveyed in the sources) by situating it within a
broader context.
3. Making effective rhetorical choices that consistently strengthen the force and
impact of the student's argument throughout the response.
4. Employing a style that is consistently vivid and persuasive.

 

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Time to synthesize this dough into some cookies.



Rhetorical Analysis Essay Rubrics

THESIS

Score Scoring Criteria Essays With This Score:
0 For any of the following:
• There is no defensible thesis.
• The intended thesis only restates the prompt.
• The intended thesis provides a summary of the issue with no apparent or coherent claim.
• There is a thesis, but it does not respond to the prompt.
• Only restate the prompt.
• Fail to address the rhetorical choices the writer of the passage makes.
• Describe or repeat the passage rather than making a claim that requires a defense.
1 Responds to the prompt with a defensible thesis that analyzes the writer's
rhetorical choices.
Respond to the prompt rather than restate or rephrase the prompt
and clearly articulate a defensible thesis about the rhetorical choices
the writer makes.

 

EVIDENCE AND COMMENTARY

Score Scoring Criteria Essays With This Score:
0 Simply restates thesis
(if present), repeats provided information, or offers information irrelevant to the prompt.
  • Are incoherent or do not address the prompt.
  • May be just opinion with
    no textual references
    or references that are
    irrelevant.
1 EVIDENCE:
Provides evidence that is mostly general.
AND
COMMENTARY:
Summarizes the evidence but does not explain how the
evidence supports the student's argument.
  • Tend to focus on summary or description
    of a passage rather than
    specific details or techniques.
  • Mention rhetorical choices with little or no explanation.
2 EVIDENCE:
Provides some specific relevant evidence.
AND
COMMENTARY:
Explains how some of the
evidence relates to the student's argument, but no line of reasoning is established, or the line of reasoning is faulty.
  • Consist of a mix of
    specific evidence and
    broad generalities.
  • May contain some
    simplistic, inaccurate, or
    repetitive explanations
    that don't strengthen the argument.
  • May make one point well, but either do not make multiple supporting claims or do not adequately support more than one claim.
  • Do not explain the
    connections or
    progression between the student's claims, so a line of reasoning is not clearly established.
3 EVIDENCE:
Provides specific evidence to
support all claims in a line of
reasoning.
AND
COMMENTARY:
Explains how some of the
evidence supports a line of
reasoning.
AND
Explains how at least one
rhetorical choice in the passage contributes to the writer's argument, purpose, or message.
  • Uniformly offer evidence to support claims.
  • Focus on the importance of specific words and details from the sources to build an argument.
  • Organize an argument
    as a line of reasoning
    composed of multiple
    supporting claims.
  • Commentary may fail to
    integrate some evidence or fail to support a key claim.
4 EVIDENCE:
Provides specific evidence to
support all claims in a line of
reasoning.
AND
COMMENTARY:
Consistently explains how the
evidence supports a line of
reasoning.
AND
Explains how multiple rhetorical choices in the passage contribute to the writer's argument, purpose, or message.
  • Uniformly offer
    evidence to support
    claims.
  • Focus on the
    importance of specific
    words and details from
    the sources to build an
    argument.
  • Organize and support
    an argument as a line of
    reasoning composed
    of multiple supporting
    claims, each with
    adequate evidence that
    is clearly explained.
  • Explain how the writer's
    use of rhetorical choices
    contributes to the student's interpretation of the passage.

 

SOPHISTICATION

Score Scoring Criteria Essays With This Score:
0 Does not meet the criteria for one point • Attempt to contextualize their argument, but such attempts consist predominantly of sweeping generalizations.
• Only hint at or suggest other arguments. • Examine individual rhetorical choices but do not examine the relationships among different choices throughout the passage.
• Oversimplify complexities in the passage.
• Use complicated or complex sentences or language that are ineffective because they do not enhance the argument.
1 Demonstrates sophistication of thought and/or a complex understanding of the
rhetorical situation.
Responses that earn this point may demonstrate sophistication of thought
and/or a complex understanding of the rhetorical situation by doing any of the following: 1. Explaining the significance or relevance of the writer's rhetorical choices (given
the rhetorical situation).
2. Explaining a purpose or function of the passage's complexities or tensions.
3. Employing a style that is consistently vivid and persuasive throughout the
student's response.

 

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Examine your texts closely!

 

Argumentative Essay Rubrics

THESIS

Score Scoring Criteria Essays With This Score:
0 For any of the following:
• There is no defensible thesis.
• The intended thesis only restates the prompt.
• The intended thesis provides a summary of the issue with no apparent or coherent claim.
• There is a thesis, but it does not respond to the prompt.
• Only restate the prompt.
• Do not take a position, or the position is vague or must be inferred.
• State an obvious fact rather than making a claim that requires a defense.
1 Responds to the prompt with a thesis that presents a defensible position. Respond to the prompt rather than restate or rephrase the prompt,
and the thesis clearly takes a position rather than just stating that there are pros/cons.

 

EVIDENCE AND COMMENTARY

Score Scoring Criteria Essays With This Score:
0 Simply restates thesis (if
present), repeats provided
information, or offers
information irrelevant to
the prompt.
  • Are incoherent or do not address the prompt.
  • May be just opinion with
    no textual references
    or references that are
    irrelevant.
1 EVIDENCE:
Provides evidence that is
mostly general.
AND
COMMENTARY:
Summarizes the evidence
but does not explain how
the evidence supports the
argument.
Tend to focus on summary
of evidence rather than
specific details.
2 EVIDENCE:
Provides some specific
relevant evidence.
AND
COMMENTARY:
Explains how some of the
evidence relates to the
student's argument, but
no line of reasoning is
established, or the line of
reasoning is faulty.
  • Consist of a mix of
    specific evidence and
    broad generalities.
  • May contain some
    simplistic, inaccurate, or
    repetitive explanations
    that don't strengthen the argument.
  • May make one point well, but either do not make multiple supporting claims or do not adequately support more than one claim.
3 EVIDENCE:
Provides specific evidence to
support all claims in a line of
reasoning.
AND
COMMENTARY:
Explains how some of the
evidence supports a line of
reasoning.
  • Uniformly offer evidence to support claims.
  • Focus on the importance of specific words and details from the sources to build an argument.
  • Organize an argument
    as a line of reasoning
    composed of multiple
    supporting claims.
  • Commentary may fail to
    integrate some evidence or fail to support a key claim.
4 EVIDENCE:
Provides specific
evidence to support
all claims in a line of
reasoning.
AND
COMMENTARY:
Consistently explains how
the evidence supports a
line of reasoning.
  • Uniformly offer
    evidence to support
    claims.
  • Focus on the
    importance of specific
    words and details from
    the sources to build an
    argument.
  • Organize and support
    an argument as a line of
    reasoning composed
    of multiple supporting
    claims, each with
    adequate evidence that
    is clearly explained.

 

SOPHISTICATION

Score Scoring Criteria Essays With This Score:
0 Does not meet the criteria for one point • Attempt to contextualize their argument, but such attempts consist predominantly of sweeping generalizations.
• Only hint at or suggest other arguments.
• Use complicated or complex sentences or language that
are ineffective because they do not enhance the argument.
1 Demonstrates sophistication of thought and/or a complex understanding of the
rhetorical situation.
Responses that earn this point may demonstrate sophistication of thought
and/or a complex understanding of the rhetorical situation by doing any of the following: 1. Crafting a nuanced argument by consistently identifying and exploring
complexities or tensions.
2. Articulating the implications or limitations of an argument (either the student's argument or an argument related to the prompt) by situating it within a broader context.
3. Making effective rhetorical choices that consistently strengthen the force and
impact of the student's argument.
4. Employing a style that is consistently vivid and persuasive throughout the
student's response.

 

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The best kind of frenzy is a puppy frenzy!

 

AP English Language Prep Tips

Unlike its cousin, the AP English Literature and Composition exam, the AP Language and Composition exam (and course) have very little to do with fiction or poetry. So some students used to more traditional English classes may be somewhat at a loss as to what to do to prepare.

Luckily for you, I have a whole slate of preparation tips for you!

 

Read Nonfiction—In a Smart Way

A major thing you can do to prepare for the AP Lang and Comp exam is to read nonfiction—particularly nonfiction that argues a position, whether explicitly (like an op-ed) or implicitly (like many memoirs and personal essays). Read a variety of non-fiction genres and topics, and pay attention to the following:

  • What is the author's argument?
  • What evidence do they use to support their position?
  • What rhetorical techniques and strategies do they use to build their argument?
  • Are they persuasive? What counterarguments can you identify? Do they address them?

Thinking about these questions with all the reading you do will help you hone your rhetorical analysis skills.

 

Learn Rhetorical Terms and Strategies

Of course, if you're going to be analyzing the nonfiction works you read for their rhetorical techniques and strategies, you need to know what those are! You should learn a robust stable of rhetorical terms from your teacher, but here's my guide to the most important AP Language and Composition terms.

If you want to review, there are many resources you could consult:

  • Another great resource for learning about rhetorical analysis and how rhetorical devices are actually used is the YouTube Channel Teach Argument, which has videos rhetorically analyzing everything from Taylor Swift music videos to Super Bowl commercials. It's a fun way to think about rhetorical devices and get familiar with argumentative structures.
  • Finally, a great book—which you might already use in your class—is "They Say, I Say." This book provides an overview of rhetoric specifically for academic purposes, which will serve you well for AP preparation and beyond.

 

Write

You also need to practice argumentative and persuasive writing. In particular, you should practice the writing styles that will be tested on the exam: synthesizing your own argument based on multiple outside sources, rhetorically analyzing another piece of writing in-depth, and creating a completely original argument based on your own evidence and experience.

You should be doing lots of writing assignments in your AP class to prepare, but thoughtful, additional writing will help. You don't necessarily need to turn all of the practice writing you do into polished pieces, either—just writing for yourself, while trying to address some of these tasks, will give you a low-pressure way to try out different rhetorical structures and argumentative moves, as well as practicing things like organization and developing your own writing style.

 

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Not the most auspicious start to an argumentative essay.

 

Practice for the Exam

Finally, you'll need to practice specifically for the exam format. There are sample multiple-choice questions in the "AP Course and Exam Description," and old free-response questions on the College Board website.

Unfortunately, the College Board hasn't officially released any complete exams from previous years for the AP English Language and Composition exam, but you might be able to find some that teachers have uploaded to school websites and so on by Googling "AP Language complete released exams." I also have a guide to AP Language and Composition practice tests.

Once you're prepped and ready to go, how can you do your best on the test?

 

AP Language and Composition Test Day Tips

Here are four key tips for test-day success.

 

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You are one hundred percent success!

 

Interact With the Text

When you are reading passages, both on the multiple-choice section and for the first two free-response questions, interact with the text! Mark it up for things that seem important, devices you notice, the author's argument, and anything else that seems important to the rhetorical construction of the text. This will help you engage with the text and make it easier to answer questions or write an essay about the passage.

 

Think About Every Text's Overarching Purpose and Argument

Similarly, with every passage you read, consider the author's overarching purpose and argument. If you can confidently figure out what the author's primary assertion is, it will be easier to trace how all of the other aspects of the text play into the author's main point.

 

Plan Your Essays

The single most important thing you can do for yourself on the free-response section of the AP English Language exam is to spend a few minutes planning and outlining your essays before you start to write them.

Unlike on some other exams, where the content is the most important aspect of the essay, on the AP Language Exam, organization, a well-developed argument, and strong evidence are all critical to strong essay scores. An outline will help you with all of these things. You'll be able to make sure each part of your argument is logical, has sufficient evidence, and that your paragraphs are arranged in a way that is clear and flows well.

 

Anticipate and Address Counterarguments

Another thing you can do to give your free responses an extra boost is to identify counterarguments to your position and address them within your essay. This not only helps shore up your own position, but it's also a fairly sophisticated move in a timed essay that will win you kudos with AP graders.

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Address counterarguments properly or they might get returned to sender!

 

Key Takeaways

The AP Language and Composition exam tests your rhetorical skills. The exam has two sections.

The first section is an hour-long, 45 question multiple-choice test based on the rhetorical techniques and composition choices.

The second section is a two-hour free-response section (with a 15-minute initial reading period) with three essay questions: one where you must synthesize given sources to make an original argument, one where you must rhetorically analyze a given passage, and one where you must create a wholly original argument about an issue with no outside sources given.

You'll receive one point for every correct answer on the multiple-choice section of the exam, which is worth 45% of your score. The free-response section is worth 55% of your score. For each free-response question, you'll get a score based on a rubric from 0-6. Your total raw score will be converted to a scaled score from 1-5.

Here are some test prep strategies for AP Lang:

#1: Read nonfiction with an eye for rhetoric
#2: Learn rhetorical strategies and techniques
#3: Practice writing to deploy rhetorical skills
#4: Practice for the exam!

Here are some test-day success tips:

#1: Interact with each passage you encounter!
#2: Consider every text's overarching purpose and argument.
#3: Keep track of time
#4: Plan your essays
#5: Identify and address counterarguments in your essays.

With all of this knowledge, you're ready to slay the AP English Language and Composition beast!

 

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Noble knight, prepare to slay the AP dragon!

 

What's Next?

Want more AP Lang review? We have a complete collection of released AP Language practice tests, as well as a list of the AP Lang terms you need to know and a guide to the multiple choice section.

Taking the AP Literature exam? Check out our ultimate guide to the AP English Literature test and our list of AP Literature practice tests.

Taking other AP exams? See our Ultimate Guides to AP World History, AP US History, AP Chemistry, AP Biology, AP World History, and AP Human Geography.

Need more AP prep guidance? Check out how to study for AP exams and how to find AP practice tests.

 


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Ellen McCammon
About the Author

Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of life. She received a BA from Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University.



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