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AP Chemistry Syllabus: What Does It Cover?

Posted by Samantha Lindsay | Nov 4, 2018 10:09:00 AM

Advanced Placement (AP)



What does an AP Chemistry syllabus look like? How many labs do you have to do? And what skills are you expected to learn before the test?

In this article, I'll take an in-depth look at the components of a successful AP Chemistry syllabus, including content coverage, lab work, and overall curriculum requirements. I'll also give an example of a full syllabus (based on a sample from the College Board) and provide some helpful tips for both students and teachers!


What Does the AP Chemistry Course Cover?

AP Chemistry is a wide-ranging course. The curriculum is divided into six "Big Ideas," or major themes, that encompass long lists of smaller topics. I'll list the Big Ideas along with the smaller themes within them that the College Board calls "Enduring Understandings." These are actually broken down further into pieces of "Essential Knowledge," which (for the sake of keeping this article to a reasonable length) are not included here.

There are also seven Scientific Practices that students are expected to master in the course, which I'll list after the Big Ideas. This is a part of the new inquiry-based model of AP science courses that encourages independent thinking. Finally, there are some overarching Curricular Requirements that every AP Chemistry class must fulfill, which I'll go over after the Scientific Practices. For the full course description with even more details, consult this link!


The 6 Big Ideas of AP Chemistry

The Big Ideas are the fundamental concepts every AP Chemistry syllabus must cover.


Big Idea 1: The chemical elements are fundamental building materials of matter, and all matter can be understood in terms of arrangement of atoms. These atoms retain their identities in chemical reactions.

  • Enduring Understanding 1.A: All matter is made of atoms. There are a limited number of types of atoms; these are the elements.
  • EU 1.B: The atoms of each element have unique structures arising from interactions between electrons and nuclei.
  • EU 1.C: Elements display periodicity in their properties when the elements are organized according to increasing atomic number. Periodicity is a useful principle for understanding properties and predicting trends in properties.
  • EU 1.D: Atoms are so small that they are difficult to study directly; atomic models are constructed to explain experimental data on collections of atoms.
  • EU 1.E: Atoms are conserved in physical and chemical processes.


Big Idea 2: Chemical and physical properties of materials can be explained by the structure and arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules and the forces between them.

  • EU 2.A: Matter can be described by its physical properties. The physical properties of a substance generally depend on the spacing between the particles (atoms, molecules, ions) that make up the substance and the forces of attraction among them.
  • EU 2.B: Forces of attraction between particles (including the noble gases and also different parts of some large molecules) are important in determining many macroscopic properties of a substance, including how the observable physical state changes with temperature.
  • EU 2.C: The strong electrostatic forces of attraction holding atoms together in a unit are called chemical bonds.
  • EU 2.D: The type of bonding in the solid state can be deduced from the properties of the solid state.


Big Idea 3: Changes in matter involve the rearrangement and/or reorganization of atoms and/or the transfer of electrons.

  • EU 3.A: Chemical changes are represented by a balanced chemical equation that identifies the ratios with which reactants react and products form.
  • EU 3.B: Chemical reactions can be classified by considering what the reactants are, what the products are, or how they change from one into the other. Classes of chemical reactions include synthesis, decomposition, acid-base, and oxidation-reduction reactions.
  • EU 3.C: Chemical and physical transformations may be observed in several ways and typically involve a change in energy.


Big Idea 4: Rates of chemical reactions are determined by details of the molecular collisions.

  • EU 4.A: Reaction rates that depend on temperature and other environmental factors are determined by measuring changes in concentrations of reactants or products over time.
  • EU 4.B: Elementary reactions are mediated by collisions between molecules. Only collisions having sufficient energy and proper relative orientation of reactants lead to products.
  • EU 4.C: Many reactions proceed via a series of elementary reactions.
  • EU 4.D: Reaction rates may be increased by the presence of a catalyst.


Big Idea 5: The laws of thermodynamics describe the essential role of energy and explain and predict the direction of changes in matter.

  • EU 5.A: Two systems with different temperatures that are in thermal contact will exchange energy. The quantity of thermal energy transferred from one system to another.
  • EU 5.B: Energy is neither created nor destroyed, but only transformed from one form to another.
    EU 5.C: Breaking bonds requires energy, and making bonds releases energy.
  • EU 5.D: Electrostatic forces exist between molecules as well as between atoms or ions, and breaking the resultant intermolecular attractions requires energy.
  • EU 5.E: Chemical or physical processes are driven by a decrease in enthalpy or an increase in entropy, or both.


Big Idea 6: Any bond or intermolecular attraction that can be formed can be broken. These two processes are in a dynamic competition, sensitive to initial conditions and external perturbations.

  • EU 6.A: Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic, reversible state in which rates of opposing processes are equal.
  • EU 6.B: Systems at equilibrium are responsive to external perturbations, with the response leading to a change in the composition of the system.
  • EU 6.C: Chemical equilibrium plays an important role in acid-base chemistry and in solubility.
  • EU 6.D: The equilibrium constant is related to temperature and the difference in Gibbs free energy between reactants and products.


body_bigideaschemistry.jpgThis idea is huge by itself, and now you're telling me there are five more??? Sigh. Another day another dollar.


The 7 Scientific Practices of AP Chemistry

These seven "scientific practices" represent skills that students are expected to learn in AP Chemistry. Many of these relate to correct implementation of the scientific method in a lab context. They're especially tied to the "Guided Inquiry" labs, where students work independently to plan and conduct experiments.

#1: The student can use representations and models to communicate scientific phenomena and solve scientific problems.

#2: The student can use mathematics appropriately.

#3: The student can engage in scientific questioning to extend thinking or to guide investigations within the context of the AP course.

#4: The student can plan and implement data collection strategies in relation to a particular scientific question. [Note: Data can be collected from many different sources, e.g., investigations, scientific observations, the findings of others, historic reconstruction, and/or archived data.]

#5: The student can perform data analysis and evaluation of evidence.

#6: The student can work with scientific explanations and theories.

#7: The student is able to connect and relate knowledge across various scales, concepts, and representations in and across domains.


AP Chemistry Curricular Requirements

The curricular requirements are concrete statements of expectations for the AP Chemistry course. These include requirements for the types of materials teachers must use in class, the structural framework of the course, the opportunities students should receive, and the percentage of class time devoted to labs.

  • The course must use a recently published (within the past ten years) college-level chemistry textbook.
  • The course must be structured around the Enduring Understandings within the Big Ideas as described in the AP Chemistry curriculum framework.
  • Students should have opportunities outside of laboratory investigations to meet the learning objectives within each of the big ideas in the AP Chemistry curriculum.
  • Students have the opportunity to connect their knowledge of chemistry and science to major societal or technological components to help them become scientifically literate citizens.
  • Labs make up 25 percent of the instructional time at minimum and include at least 16 hands-on experiments.
  • Lab investigations allow students to apply the seven science practices, and at least 6 of the 16 labs are conducted in a guided-inquiry format. "Guided inquiry" labs put students at the center of the learning process, encouraging them to pose, develop, and experimentally investigate questions (self-generated or supplied). Other more traditional labs are teacher-directed, which means that teachers provide not only the questions for investigation, but also set procedures and data collection strategies for student use.
  • The course provides opportunities for students to develop, record, and maintain evidence of their verbal, written, and graphic communication skills through lab reports, summaries of literature or scientific investigations, and oral, written, and graphic presentations.


body_presentation.jpgKeep in mind that it takes a while for most students to learn how to hold presentation materials in ways that don't completely obscure their faces. Work on it. You'll get there, buddy.


What Does an AP Chemistry Syllabus Look Like?

The following is a summary of a sample syllabus supplied by the College Board that goes through all the units that would be taught in a standard AP Chemistry course. It also provides the number of class periods allotted for each unit.

In this example, the class periods are 52 minutes long. You can read the full syllabus here, and there are also a few more sample syllabi on this page!


Course Materials

Primary Textbook

Zumdahl, Steven and Susan Zumdahl. Chemistry, Eighth Edition. Belmont CA: Cengage Learning, 2012.


Other Resources Used

  • The College Board. AP Chemistry Guided Inquiry Experiments: Applying the Science Practices. 2013.
  • Demmin, Peter. AP Chemistry, Fifth Edition. New York: D&S Marketing Systems Inc., 2005.
  • Vonderbrink, Sally. Laboratory Experiments for AP Chemistry. Batavia: Flinn Scientific, 2001.
  • Randall, Jack. Advanced Chemistry with Vernier. Oregon: Vernier Software and Technology, 2004.
  • Holmquist, Dan and Donald Volz. Chemistry with Calculators. Oregon: Vernier Software and Technology, 2003.
  • Beran, Jo Allan. Laboratory Principles of General Chemistry, Seventh Edition. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2004.



Unit 1: Chemistry Fundamentals

  • 12 Class Periods
  • 10 Problem sets
  • 2 Quizzes
  • 1 Exam



  • Scientific method
  • Classification of matter
  • Nomenclature and formulas of binary compounds
  • Polyatomic ions and other compounds
  • Determination of atomic masses
  • Mole concept
  • Percent composition
  • Empirical and molecular formula
  • Writing chemical equations and drawn representations
  • Balancing chemical equations
  • Applying mole concept to chemical equations (stoichiometry)
  • Determining limiting reactants, theoretical and percent yield of reactions



Math and Measurement in Science
Students learn how to measure mass and volume with varied pieces of equipment and focus on the accuracy of those pieces of equipment in their calculation and determination of significant figures. Students also determine the identity of an unknown organic liquid using density determination.

Guided Inquiry Lab: Physical and Chemical Properties
Students are given the materials to conduct various procedures. They construct a procedure for each of the eight changes to be observed, have their procedures approved by the instructor, and then carry out the procedures. The data collected is used to develop a set of criteria for determining whether a given change is chemical or physical.

Stoichiometry Lab
Students determine the correct mole ratio of reactants in an exothermic reaction by mixing different amounts of reactants and graphing temperature changes.



Unit 2: Types of Chemical Equations

  • 8 Class Periods
  • 4 Problem Sets
  • 3 Quizzes
  • 1 Exam



  • Electrolytes and properties of water
  • Molarity and preparation of solutions
  • Precipitation reactions and solubility rules
  • Acid-Base reactions and formation of a salt by titration
  • Balancing redox reactions
  • Simple redox titrations
  • Gravimetric calculations



pH Titration Lab
Students perform a titration and then determine the concentration of an HCl solution by using a potentiometric titration curve and finding the equivalence point. Data is graphed in a graphing program.

Bleach Lab
Students perform redox titrations to determine the concentration of hypochlorite in household bleach.

Online Redox Titration Activity
Online lab simulation where students can manipulate various factors to influence a redox titration.



Unit 3: AP Style Net Ionic Equations

  • 8 Class Periods
  • 6 Problem Sets
  • 4 Quizzes
  • 1 Exam



  • Redox and single replacement reactions
  • Double replacement reactions
  • Combustion reactions
  • Addition reactions
  • Decomposition reactions



Copper Reaction Lab
Students perform a series of reactions, starting with copper and ending with copper. Students then calculate percent recovered.



Unit 4: Gas Laws

  • 8 Class Periods
  • 5 Problem Sets
  • 3 Quizzes
  • 1 Exam



  • Measurement of gases
  • General gas laws - Boyle, Charles, Combined, and Ideal
  • Dalton's Law of partial pressure
  • Molar volume of gases and stoichiometry
  • Graham's Law
  • Kinetic Molecular Theory
  • Real gases and deviation from ideal gas law
  • Graham's law demonstration



Molecular Mass of a Volatile Liquid
Students use the Dumas method for determination of the molar mass of an unknown volatile liquid.



Unit 5: Thermochemistry

  • 8 Class Periods
  • 5 Problem Sets
  • 3 Quizzes
  • 1 Exam



  • Law of conservation of energy, work, and internal energy
  • Endothermic and exothermic reactions
  • Potential energy diagrams
  • Calorimetry, heat capacity, and specific heat
  • Hess's Law
  • Heat of formation/combustion
  • Bond energies



Guided Inquiry Lab: Hess's Law
Students perform a series of reactions and calculate enthalpy, proving Hess's law.

Activity: Online Heating and Cooling Curve Simulations



Unit 6: Atomic Structure and Periodicity

  • 12 Class periods
  • 9 Problem sets
  • 4 Quizzes
  • 1 Exam



  • Electron configuration and the Aufbau principle
  • Valence electrons and Lewis dot structures
  • Periodic trends
  • Table arrangement based on electronic properties
  • Properties of light and study of waves
  • Atomic spectra of hydrogen and energy levels
  • Quantum mechanical model
  • Quantum theory and electron orbitals
  • Orbital shape and energies
  • Spectroscopy



Spectroscopy Lab
Students look at a series of emission spectra and determine the identity of an unknown. They will also receive and analyze IR and mass spectroscopy data.

Activity: Periodic Table Dry Lab
Students graph values for atomic radius, electronegativity, and ionization energy to predict trends and explain the organization of the periodic table.



Unit 7: Chemical Bonding

  • 11 Class Periods
  • 8 Problem Sets
  • 4 Quizzes
  • 1 Exam



  • Lewis Dot structures
  • Resonance structures and formal charge
  • Bond polarity and dipole moments
  • VSEPR models and molecular shape
  • Polarity of molecules
  • Lattice energies
  • Hybridization
  • Molecular orbitals and diagrams



Guided Inquiry: Bonding Lab
Students experimentally investigate ionic and molecular substances deducing properties of their bonds in the process.

Guided Inquiry: Investigation of Solids
Students investigate types of solids using various experimental techniques.

Activity: Atomic Theory Dry Lab (Students make drawings of a series of molecules and, from those drawings, predict geometry, hybridization, and polarity)



Unit 8: Liquids, Solids, and Solutions

  • 6 Class Periods
  • 4 Problem Sets
  • 2 Quizzes
  • 1 Exam



  • Structure and bonding
  • Metals, network, and molecular
  • Ionic, hydrogen, London, van der Waals
  • Vapor pressure and changes in state
  • Heating and cooling curves
  • Composition of solutions
  • Colloids and suspensions
  • Separation techniques
  • Effect on biological systems



Solution Preparation Lab
Students make solutions of specified concentrations gravimetrically and by dilution. Solution concentrations will be checked for accuracy using a spectrophotometer.

Vapor Pressure of Liquids Lab
Students measure the vapor pressure of ethanol at different temperatures to determine ∆H.

Activity: Effect on Biological Systems
Students examine a demonstration size model of DNA or an alpha helix, and use their fingers to identify which atoms / base pairs are particularly involved in hydrogen bonding within the molecule, causing the helical structure. Students then discuss how the increased UV light because of ozone depletion can cause chemical reactions and thus mutations and disruption of hydrogen bonding.



Unit 9: Kinetics

  • 9 Class Periods
  • 3 Problem Sets
  • 3 Quizzes
  • 1 Exam



  • Rates of reactions
  • Factors that affect rates of reactions/ collision theory
  • Reaction Pathways
  • Rate equation determination
  • Rate constants
  • Mechanisms
  • Method of initial rates
  • Integrated rate laws
  • Activation energy and Boltzmann distribution



Guided Inquiry: Determining Order of a (Crystal Violet) Reaction
Using colorimetry and Beer's law, students determine the order of a reaction and its rate law.

Determining the Activation Energy of a Reaction
Students use the same set-up as in the crystal violet lab, but, this time, varying temperature to calculate the activation energy with the use of the Arrhenius equation.

Activity: Online Kinetics Activity
Using a web-based simulation, students will study the elementary steps of a mechanism and how it relates to reaction rate and collision theory.



Unit 10: General Equilibrium

  • 6 Class Periods
  • 4 Problem Sets
  • 3 Quizzes
  • 1 Exam



  • Characteristics and conditions of chemical equilibrium
  • Equilibrium expression derived from rates
  • Factors that affect equilibrium
  • Le Chatelier's principle
  • The equilibrium constant
  • Solving equilibrium problems



Determination of a Kc with Varied Initial Concentrations
Students use a spectrophotometer to determine the Kc of a series of reactions.

Activity: Online Gas Phase Equilibrium Activity
In the online inquiry activity, students are able to manipulate the environment and produce stresses that verify the tendency of Le Chatelier's principle.



Unit 11: Acids and Bases

  • 8 Class Periods
  • 4 Problem sets
  • 3 Quizzes
  • 1 Exam



  • Definition and nature of acids and bases
  • Kw and the pH scale
  • pH of strong and weak acids and bases
  • Polyprotic acids
  • pH of salts
  • Structure of Acids and Bases



Determination of a Ka by Half Titration
Students do a titration in which ½ of the weak acid titrated is neutralized (aka midpoint), and then the Ka is determined.



Unit 12: Buffers, Ksp, and Titrations

  • 11 Class Periods
  • 6 Problem Sets
  • 4 Quizzes
  • 1 Exam



  • Characteristics and capacity of buffers
  • Titrations and pH curves
  • Choosing Acid-Base Indicators
  • pH and solubility
  • Ksp Calculations and Solubility Product



Guided Inquiry: Types of Titrations
Students investigate titration curves by doing titrations of different combinations of weak and strong acids and bases.

Guided Inquiry: Preparation of a Buffer
Given a selection of chemicals, students prepare a buffer of a given pH.

Molar Solubility and Determination of Ksp
Students find the Ksp of calcium hydroxide doing a potentiometric titration with the addition of methyl orange indicator for verification.



Unit 13: Thermodynamics

  • 10 Class Periods
  • 5 Problem Sets
  • 3 Quizzes
  • 1 Exam



  • Laws of thermodynamics
  • Spontaneous process and entropy
  • Spontaneity, enthalpy, and free energy
  • Free energy
  • Free energy and equilibrium
  • Rate and Spontaneity



Solubility and Determination of ΔH°, ΔS°, ΔG° of Calcium Hydroxide
Students collect and analyze data to determine ΔH°, ΔS°, and ΔG° of calcium hydroxide.



Unit 14: Electrochemistry

  • 8 Class Periods
  • 5 Problem Sets
  • 4 Quizzes
  • 1 Exam



  • Balancing redox equations
  • Electrochemical cells and voltage
  • The Nernst equation
  • Spontaneous and non-spontaneous equations
  • Chemical applications



Voltaic Cell Lab
Students find the reduction potentials of a series of reactions using voltaic cells/multi-meters and build their own reduction potential table. Dilutions will be made, and the Nernst equation will also be tested.



Final AP Review

  • 16 Class Periods
  • 4 Quizzes
  • 4 Exams



  • Review of ALL topics
  • 4 AP-Style Review Exams
  • Mock AP Test



The Green Crystal Lab
A series of labs completed over a 4-week period. Students work at their own pace in pairs. The goal of this lab is to determine the empirical formula of a ferrioxalate crystal. It includes the following experiments:

  • Experiment 1: Synthesis of the crystal
  • Experiment 2: Standardization of KMnO4 by redox titration
  • Experiment 3: Determination of % oxalate in crystal by redox titration
  • Experiment 4: Standardization of NaOH by acid/base titration
  • Experiment 5: Determination of % K+ and Fe3+ by ion exchange chromatography and a double equivalence point titration
  • Experiment 6: Determination of the % water in the hydrated crystal

body_greencrystal.jpgGreen crystals!!! Actually, the green crystals for the lab look even cooler than that.


Teaching Tips for AP Chemistry

These are some tips I came up with for AP Chemistry teachers based on my experiences as a student in the course. I struggled a lot with chemistry in high school (partially because my teacher wasn't very good), so here are a few things that I think would have helped me out at the time.


Tip #1: Do Plenty of Sample Problems in Class (and Go Over Homework Thoroughly)

When I was in AP Chemistry, I had a hard time understanding how to solve complex multi-step problems. I often couldn't figure them out on my own, even when I had read examples in the textbook and seen my teacher go through similar examples. I'd advise teachers to do as many sample problems as possible in class.

It's important to give students background information, but walking through sample problems step-by-step is the most valuable practical instruction you can provide. You should also go through homework problem sets in class so that students can see exactly where they made mistakes and why. Encourage students to try redoing the problems with the new information they've learned to reinforce the correct methods.


Tip #2: Offer Extra Help Sessions

Because AP Chemistry is such a challenging class, it's likely that many students will be interested in extra help outside of the designated class period. Although students should be encouraged to take the initiative in asking for help, I think it's also a good idea to set up a designated time when you'll be available after school.

Block out a couple of after-school hours one or two days a week, and encourage students to come to you with any questions or concerns they have about the class. You can also set aside times for review sessions before each exam that all students are encouraged to attend. These could even include chemistry-themed review games and competitions (if your students are true nerds they will love this).


Tip #3: Give Students Real AP Practice Tests

To prepare effectively for the AP test, students need to get used to the format and timing. As you get closer to the exam, administer a few mock AP tests. Translate grades to where they would fall on the AP scale so that students have a better idea of where they're scoring and how much they need to study to reach their goals. This will help give them more motivation to study and force any stragglers to get serious about improving their scores.


body_aplus-2.pngGrades on real AP practice tests will help light a fire under students who have a tendency to procrastinate and cram.


Tips for AP Chemistry Students

If, on the other hand you're an AP Chemistry student, you may find these tips for doing well in this challenging class helpful.


Tip #1: Pay Attention in Class

Obviously, right? Well, not necessarily; zoning out during lectures is something that we're all guilty of doing because we're human beings. However, this is a class where you really, really need to pay attention to your teacher's explanations. It's hard to self-teach chemistry because you're not just memorizing facts, you're learning how to do different types of calculations and navigate a bunch of new terminologies. If you can only pay attention to one thing, make it the example problems that your teacher does in class. Take notes on the solution steps so you can refer to them in the future and refresh your memory.


Tip #2: Ask Lots of Questions (and Get Help If You Need It!)

If you don't understand something, get clarification as soon as possible. AP Chemistry isn't a class where you can let a few things fall by the wayside and still get by. The information builds on itself, so it's critical that you have a strong understanding of every concept. Gaps in knowledge will come back to bite you in the end! If you don't feel like you're getting enough of an explanation in class, don't be afraid to ask your teacher for extra help.


Tip #3: Don't Fall Behind

It will be tempting to say "oh, I don't actually need to do this problem set" or "eh, I'll read this chapter later." But if you do that too many times, before you know it you'll have no idea what's happening in class. This course moves very quickly from one complex concept to the next, so you can't afford to fall behind. As I mentioned, concepts build on one another. If you find yourself slipping and losing touch with what's going on in the course, ask your teacher for extra help as soon as possible to resolve the issue.


Tip #4: Get a Review Book, and Review Concepts Throughout the Year

Review books can be very helpful for AP Chemistry because they're well-organized catalogs of all the different concepts you will learn in the course. There's so much packed into the curriculum that I'd recommend buying a book so you have something to ground yourself as you're looking back through the material.

You can use the review book for practice problems and AP review sessions throughout the year. Every couple of months, do a review of everything you've learned so far to keep the information at the front of your mind. Here's my list of the best review books for AP Chemistry to give you a lil head start.


Review books will lay out the structure of the course more clearly for you so that you don't get lost in your notes!



To recap, the AP Chemistry syllabus revolves around six "Big Ideas," which are main themes that cover more specific concepts called "Enduring Understandings." Each AP Chemistry course is expected to give students the skills they need to understand these larger themes and connect them to a basic factual knowledge of the ins and outs of chemistry.

Additionally, an effective course syllabus provides assignments that enable students to master the seven "Scientific Practices" established by the course guidelines. It will also adhere to the rules established by the Curriculum Requirements.


A few tips I would recommend for teaching this course are:

#1: Do Lots of Sample Problems in Class
#2: Offer Built-In Extra Help Sessions
#3: Administer Official Practice AP Tests


Some tips I would recommend for students who want to do well in AP Chemistry are:

#1: Pay Attention in Class
#2: Ask Questions, and Get Help if You Need It
#3: Avoid Slacking Off and Falling Behind
#4: Use a Review Book to Supplement Class Materials


AP Chemistry is a fast-paced class that covers complex concepts, but with a logically formatted syllabus and a concerted effort from both students and teachers, the course can be an enlightening introduction to a fundamental aspect of how the world works!


What's Next?

Is AP Chemistry really as challenging as some people think? Read this article for a detailed examination of the difficulty level of the course (and exam).

Need help preparing for the final exam? Check out my ultimate study guide for AP Chemistry!

If you're taking AP Chemistry, chances are that you're applying to colleges that require or recommend submission of SAT Subject Test scores. Learn more about the differences between AP Tests and SAT Subject Tests and whether one is more important than the other.


Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

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Samantha Lindsay
About the Author

Samantha is a blog content writer for PrepScholar. Her goal is to help students adopt a less stressful view of standardized testing and other academic challenges through her articles. Samantha is also passionate about art and graduated with honors from Dartmouth College as a Studio Art major in 2014. In high school, she earned a 2400 on the SAT, 5's on all seven of her AP tests, and was named a National Merit Scholar.

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